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Glossary Semiconductor

Advanced Packaging (RDL, UBM):

advanced packaging refers to advanced packaging technologies for semiconductor devices. RDL (redistribution layer) and UBM (under bump metal) are techniques used in these packaging processes to improve semiconductor device performance and reliability.

ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition):

A process for producing extremely thin films by alternately introducing two gaseous starting materials into the reactor to create exactly one atomic layer of each substance.

Bonding:

The process of connecting electronic components on a chip, often by tiny wires, to make an electrical connection.

Capacitor:

An electronic device that can store electrical charge.

Carrier gas:

A gas used in vapor deposition to support material transport and reactions.

Chip:

A semiconductor component built into a package that provides electrical contacts for integration into circuits.

Cleaning:

Cleaning is the process of removing contaminants from surfaces. In semiconductor manufacturing, cleaning surfaces is critical to ensure that no foreign particles or residues affect the performance of electronic components.

Clean Room:

A room with strict controls for temperature, humidity, and particles used in semiconductor manufacturing.

Cluster Tool:

A system that contains multiple process modules and is used for batch processes to provide cost and space savings.

CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor):

An important family of integrated circuits based on the use of complementary MOS transistors and known for their energy efficiency.

Compound semiconductors:

Materials that have both conductive and insulating properties and are often used for specialized electronic applications.

CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition):

A process of depositing solid materials from a gaseous phase to form ultra-thin films on a substrate.

Deposition:

The general process of depositing materials on a substrate, often by evaporation, sputtering, or chemical reactions.

Devices:

Electronic components in a circuit, such as transistors, capacitors, or resistors.

Die:

Abbreviation for diode-driven electronics, a technology used in the semiconductor industry.

DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory):

A type of memory chip used for temporary data storage in computers.

Epitaxy:

A crystal growth process in which a thin layer of a crystal is deposited on an existing crystal substrate. The atoms or molecules of the growing material arrange themselves in a regular structure that is influenced by the crystal structure of the substrate. This process is commonly used in the semiconductor industry to produce precisely defined layers for the fabrication of semiconductor devices.

Etching:

Etching is a process in which material is removed from a surface, often through chemical reactions with an etchant. This process is used to create tiny structures in materials or to clean or modify surfaces.

FeRAM (Ferroelectric Random Access Memory):

A non-volatile memory type that uses ferroelectric materials to store data.

Flash Memory:

An electronic memory type that enables non-volatile storage and is commonly used in USB flash drives and memory cards.

Glovebox:

A closed system used in semiconductor manufacturing to protect materials from contamination.

Heating:

Heating is the process of heating materials to a specific temperature. In the semiconductor industry, heating is often used to activate materials, change crystal structures, or promote chemical reactions.

High-k Dielectric:

A material with a high dielectric constant used as an insulator in integrated circuits.

High Moment Materials:

High moment materials are magnetic materials with high magnetic moment density. They are used in applications such as magnetoresistive sensors and data storage devices to achieve high sensitivity and accuracy.

Inductor:

An inductor is an electronic component that stores electrical energy in a magnetic field. When electric current flows through a wire in a coil, the coil creates a magnetic field around it. Inductors are used in many electronic circuits to control current, filter signals, or store energy.

Insulator:

A material that does not conduct electricity and is therefore used to separate electrical components.

Integrated circuit:

A complete electronic circuit integrated on a single chip.

Integrated inductors:

: Integrated inductors are electronic components that are integrated into circuits and can store electrical energy in a magnetic field. They are important for power supply in microchips and other electronic devices.

Integrated Voltage Regulator (Buck Converter):

An integrated voltage regulator, also known as a buck converter, is an electronic component that reduces the input voltage to provide a constant output voltage for electronic circuits. This is important for energy efficiency in portable devices and other applications.

Light Emitting Diode:

An electronic component that emits light when an electric current flows through it.

Magnetic Sensor (TMR, GMR, AMR):

Magnetic sensors such as TMR (tunnel magnetoresistance), GMR (giant magnetoresistance), and AMR (anisotropic magnetoresistance) detect magnetic fields. They are used in various applications such as position sensing, in vehicles and electronic devices.

MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy):

A method of epitaxy in which materials are deposited onto the substrate as molecular beams.

Memory chip:

An integrated circuit that stores data, such as DRAM or flash memory.

MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems):

MEMS are microscopic mechanical and electronic components integrated on a chip. They are used in sensors, actuators and other applications to sense and control physical quantities such as pressure, acceleration and temperature.

MOCVD (Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition):

A CVD process that uses organometallic compounds to deposit materials. MOCVD is a process for depositing thin films of compound semiconductors from the vapor phase. Organometallic compounds are introduced into the reactor along with a carrier gas, where they undergo chemical reactions and deposit on the substrate. This process is often used in the manufacture of semiconductor devices such as LEDs and laser diodes.

MRAM (Magnetoresistive Random-Access Memory):

Magnetoresistive Random-Access Memory (MRAM) is a nonvolatile memory technology based on the TMR effect MRAMstores data magnetically and is fast, energy efficient, and does not lose data in the event of a power failure. This makes it a promising storage solution for fast and energy-efficient applications.

NAND Flash Memory:

A type of flash memory commonly used in SSDs and USB drives.

Nanometer:

A measurement of lengths on the nanoscale, equal to one billionth of a meter.

Nanotechnology:

The technology involved in manipulating materials at the nanometer scale.

Nonvolatile Memory:

A type of memory that permanently stores data even without power conservation.

OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode):

A type of light-emitting diode that uses organic compounds for light emission.

OVPD (Organic Vapor Phase Deposition):

A process for the deposition of organic materials from the vapor phase.

PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition):

A CVD process that uses a plasma to assist in material deposition.

Planetary Rotation:

A method of uniformly coating substrates by rotation in multiple axes.

Pre-Clean Process Modules:

The pre-clean process module is a device used before the actual coating process. It is used to clean the substrate of contaminants and oxides to ensure a clean surface for subsequent coating. The pre-clean process is critical to ensure good adhesion of the deposited layers.

PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition):

A process for depositing materials by evaporation or sputtering. Is a process in which materials are vaporized in a vacuum chamber and then deposited on a surface. This process is used to deposit thin films of materials such as metals on substrates.

RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) chips:

Chips used to wirelessly identify and track objects.

Rotating Substrate Module:

The Rotating Substrate Module is a device that rotates the wafer during the deposition process. This rotation ensures that the deposited layers are evenly distributed over the surface of the wafer. This is critical to the homogeneity and quality of the deposited layers.

Silicon:

A commonly used semiconductor material.

Semiconductor:

Materials that exhibit electrical conductivity between conductive metals and non-conductive insulators, often used for electronic devices.

Sensor:

A sensor detects physical, chemical or electrical signals from the environment and converts them into electrical signals. Sensors are used in a wide range of applications, from temperature measurement to motion detection in automobiles. They are critical for capturing and controlling data in various systems and devices.

Sputtering:

or sputtering, is a physical deposition process in which atoms or molecules are removed from a solid and deposited onto another surface, often a substrate. This process is used to create the thinnest layers of materials on surfaces.

Substrate:

a support material onto which other materials are deposited or applied.

TFH Readers & Writers (Thin-Film Heads):

TFH readers and writers are specialized devices in hard drives responsible for reading and writing data. They use the thinnest magnetic films to record and reproduce information.

TFT (Thin-Film Transistor):

A transistor used in flat panel displays and other applications.

Thermal Process Modules:

A device that controls substrate temperature during deposition.  Temperature plays an important role in the formation of crystal structures and the activation of chemical reactions during the coating process. Precise temperature control is used to achieve the desired coating properties.

TIMARIS:

Vacuum Coating System for Semiconductors

TMR (Tunnel Magnetoresistance):

Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) is an effect that occurs in magnetic materials, especially in thin films. It is commonly used in magnetoresistive sensors (such as hard disk heads and MRAM memories) to store data and in sensing technologies for precise measurements. The TMR effect is based on the change in electrical resistance in response to the relative alignment of magnetic moments in two layers. This effect is used in storage technology and sensing applications.

Transistors:

Electronic switches used in circuits to amplify or control signals.

Wafer:

A thin slice of semiconductor material used as the basis for manufacturing integrated circuits.

µLED:

µLED stands for micro-LED and refers to a type of LED technology that contains tiny LEDs. These are used in displays, lighting and other applications to provide high brightness and energy efficiency.

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