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Inline PECVD System for TOPCon, POLO, HJT & PERC Solar Cells

GENERIS PECVD Inline System for TOPCon, POLO, HJT & PERC Solar Cells

SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES employs inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and capacitively coupled (CCP) sources for inline PECVD coating applications. ICP is a method that offers a high electron and activation density in conjunction with low ion energy, which allows very high deposition rates over a large width and extraordinary layer quality with wide process windows at low substrate damage. Therefore, ICP plasma sources are ideally suitable for high-rate and low-damage mass production of electronic devices like solar cells. CCP is an ideal method for depositing of thin or thick conductive layers, highly doped as needed in the PV cell technology. SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES has developed new, large-scale linear plasma sources based on ICP and CCP technology. Both technologies are used for processes developed using state-of- the-art PECVD lab equipment at SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES R&D center.
SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES has also delivered systems for the deposition of functional layers for the production of gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic cells. The PECVD coating step is a crucial quality factor for GaAs solar cells that are renowned to achieve very high efficiency in excess of 35 % in multi-junction setup and that are used in space applications for the power generation of satellites.
The GENERIS PECVD is a modular horizontal inline tool designed for the special needs in mass production of state-of-the-art crystalline silicon solar cells with highest efficiencies, such as passivated emitter and rear cells (PERC) and cells with passivated contacts (e.g., TOPCon, POLO and HJT). PERC solar cells are coated on both sides with dielectric passivation layers. Rear side passivation is achieved by deposition of a thin aluminum oxide (AlOx) layer capped by hydrogen rich silicon nitride (SiNx:H). On the front side, a layer of SiNx:H serves as both, passivation, and anti-reflective coating (ARC).

Cells with passivated contacts are coated with conducting amorphous a-Si:H(n,p) or polycrystalline silicon poly-Si:H(n,p) layers single sided in the case of TOPCon or POLO cell structures or both sides in the case of HJT technology. The modular systems are ideally suited for cost effective mass production with high throughput, high uptime, short cleaning interruptions and maximum utilization of raw materials. The substrate temperature is fully controlled during the whole process, which enables optimum layer performance at temperatures from 200 °C to 500 °C for HJT, PERC and TOPCon cells. The thermal properties can be adapted in a wide range for other layer stacks and applications. SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES carriers allow single side deposition with close to zero wrap-around.

The GENERIS PECVD allows for deposition on both sides of the wafer without vacuum interruption. The application of both processes AlOx and SiNx is realized in one common system with a gas separation chamber. Same gas separation chamber enables the deposition of intrinsic and doped amorphous layers without vacuum breakage.

Especially the configuration in which all PECVD layers are deposited in one tool represents a cost attractive, highly productive, and straight forward production solution. High-rate inline deposition of these dielectric or conductive semiconductor structures without wrap-around allows future industrial mass production of more advanced and ultra-high efficient cell architectures like PERC, TOPCon, POLO-BJ HJT and tandem perovskite solar cells.


  • PECVD materials: a-Si(i,n,p) nc-Si(i,n,p) poly-Si(i,n,p) AlOx, SiNx SiOx and more
  • Typical applications include anti-reflection layers, barrier layers, electrical contacting or insulating layers
  • Available in different versions up to 5,800 wph
  • Wafer size: up to G12 & half cut formats
  • Typical cycle time: 35 – 70 s per carrier
  • Parallel processing of substrates (e.g., display, glass, Si wafers) via carrier tray
  • High-speed automatization for carrier tray loading and unloading (single or double side)
  • Top-down and bottom-up deposition configurable – dual side deposition without vacuum breakage
  • Full substrate temperature control
  • Low cost of ownership and high uptime
  • Coating sequence configurable
  • Highest utilization of precursor material
  • Carrier return system (CRS) underneath of machine

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