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Wet Processing System

Modular Wet Processing System for Cleaning and Etching of High Performance Solar Cells

Home » Products – PVD, PECVD & Wet Processing » SILEX III Wet Processing System
SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES provides complete automated dry-in/dry-out solutions for wet-chemical treatments of Si-wafers in standard and high- efficiency solar cell lines. The recently introduced modular SILEX III batch system offers a wide range of process options. With respect to highest flexibility in configuration, the SILEX III is characterized by a clear modular design and compact footprint.
The SILEX III was specially designed for high production volumes. With this mass production system, which can achieve up to 730 MW annual capacity and more, depending on cell efficiency, all wet chemical applications (batch) at the HJT, TOPCon and PERC cell concepts can be covered. The SILEX III system achieves an output starting up to 14,000 wph (gross), depending on wafer size.
The SILEX III combines common etching and cleaning steps of monocrystalline Si with advanced cleaning and conditioning processes.
The heart of the SILEX III is the alkaline texturing process improved and adapted to future demands through several years. SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES guarantees a stable, mass production proven process, which can be used in all common and upcoming cell stacks. Different requirements like pyramid size and shape can be easily adjusted by the use of different additives and process parameters.
Efficient cleaning steps are an indispensable requirement to improve cell efficiencies and reduce operation costs. Ozone-based cleaning operations, applied on SILEX III wet bench, combine efficient organic and metal removal with an appropriate surface conditioning under high and stable ozone concentrations due to the self-developed SINGOZON system.

Due to low chemical costs and consumption, simple process control and high metal removal efficiency, ozonized cleaning baths are the perfect substitute for traditional, expensive multi-step RCA cleanings, known from the solar and semiconductor industry.

The ozone treatment can also be used in combination with HF for pyramid rounding, which achieves an optimal surface for passivation in HJT production lines.

Alkaline chemical etch isolation is a PERC and TOPCon relevant process, which can be done, in combination with a prior single side inline HF step, in the SILEX III system. This results in an excellent polished, isolated wafer surface. With this development Singulus offers a HNO3-free, environmentally friendly option for etch isolation.

The SILEX III ALTEX is designed to apply IPA-free texturing processes, offering substantial cost advantages compared to traditional etching systems. This texturing process can be adjusted to the individual requirements of standard and advanced cell technologies.

The SILEX III CLEAN is provided to run dedicated cleaning sequences for pre- or post-deposition processes. Depending on cell process flow and requirement the configuration can be designed individually, involving RCA or Ozone based cleanings as well as slight etching steps.


  • High throughput up to 14,000 wph gross; wafer size: up to G12
  • High throughput for GW scale mass production
  • Short, stable, and adjustable texturing process
  • Low cost of ownership and high uptime
  • Low breakage rate < 0.01 %
  • Ozone-enhanced cleaning & etching
  • Appropriate and effective rinsing and drying
  • Individual, flexible process sequencing
  • Onboard scheduler software for throughput and recipe tuning
  • Onboard performance analyzer software Intelligent water-cascading for optimal rinsing quality by low water consumption
  • Smart integration of different rinsing principles for decreasing of media carry over
  • Ideal feed and bleed balance permits long bath lifetimes

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