A full substrate temperature control during the whole process section enables optimum layer performance at temperatures ≤ 200 °C. Compared to conventional alternative processes like Reactive Plasma Deposition (RPD), a vacuum inline sputtering system offers a number of clear advantages. Based on the calculation for a 1 GW production fab for HJT solar cells, the CAPEX for using a reduced number of high-throughput sputtering systems from SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES with a max. capacity of 10,000 wafers per hour (wph) is by far lower compared to RPD systems with a capacity of only 2,500 wph. With the latest system generation GENERIS PVD 10000, SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES can assure capacities up to 10,000 wph leading to an annual equipment output of about 500 MW.